Zoology for Degree Students - Semester IV

Zoology for Degree Students - Semester IV

Authors : Dr. V K Agarwal

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About the Author

Dr. V K Agarwal :-
MSc, PhD, has rich teaching experience of more than four decades at Meerut College, Meerut. He has taught subjects such as Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Chordate Embryology (Developmental Biology), Invertebrate Zoology, Chordate Zoology, Evolution, Ecology, Animal Behaviour (Ethology) to undergraduate and postgraduate students. Dr Agarwal has to his credit the authorship of several widely acclaimed books such as Cell Biology, Genetics, Chordate Embryology (Developmental Biology), Ecology (Environmental Biology), Ethology (Animal Behaviour), Zoology for Degree Students- BSc First Year (includes Invertebrate Zoology), Zoology for Degree Students-Semester III, Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering, and a multi-coloured edition of Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution and Ecology. The author has also co-authored CBSE - IX Biology. He has also published few research papers on Insect Physiology and Toxicology.

About the Book

This textbook has been designed to meet the needs of B.Sc. (Hons.) Fourth Semester students of Zoology as per the UGC Choice Based Credit System (CBCS). Comprehensively written, it explains the essential principles, processes and methodology of Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, Animal Physiology: Life Sustaining Systems and Biochemistry of Metabolic Processes. This textbook is profusely illustrated with over 550 well-labelled diagrams, not only to supplement the descriptions, but also for sound understanding of the concepts.


1. Definition, Historical Background and Concepts of Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
2. Integumentary System
3. Skeletal System
4. Digestive System (Alimentary Canal, Associated Glands and Dentition)
5. Respiratory System
6. Circulatory System
7. Urinogenital System
8. Nervous System
9. Sense Organs

1. Definition, History and Branches of Physiology
2. Physiology of Digestion
3. Physiology of Respiration
4. Renal Physiology (Excretion)
5. Osmoregulation and Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
6. Blood
7. Physiology of Heart

1. Overview of Metabolism
2. Carbohydrate Metabolism
3. Lipid Metabolism
4. Protein Metabolism
5. Oxidative Phosphorylation



  1.  Extensive coverage of comparative anatomy of vertebrates with an emphasis on evolutionary origin, embryological development, phylogeny and functional utility of various organ systems.
  2. Detailed discussion on physiology of digestion, respiration, excretion, osmoregulation, blood and heart. Also discusses foregut and hindgut fermentation.
  3. Comprehensive coverage of metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and oxidative phosphorylation (energy metabolism).
  4.  Over 100 boxed items throughout the text providing information on intricate terms or topics.
  5.  Engaging chapter-end exercises having more than 800 questions to enhance and strengthen learning of the students